Below is a paper that I wrote for UMUC’s class OMDE 603 Technology in Distance Education & E-learning. It includes a brief account of the use of Facebook groups to unite stand up paddlers as they train and complete paddle-related challenges asynchronously.
Using Facebook Groups to Promote Online Learning Communities
Throughout distance education’s history, much research has been devoted to investigating the causes of and possible solutions for student drop out in asynchronous courses (Brindley, 1995, p. 23). In distance education, the geographical separation between students and the instructor, as well as the asynchronous interaction, causes some students to feel isolated and alone (LaPadula, 2003, p. 120). This isolation may cause students to feel unsupported or to deprioritize their learning for face-to-face community responsibilities (family, work, church, etc) that seem more immediately pressing. A sense of community in needed in online classes to help students feel more connected to their classmates, instructors, and academic program (Moore, 2014, p. 20). Students may find that a tangible connection to their learning community is necessary to provide them with the accountability framework they need to keep them motivated and engaged.
This paper examines the use of Facebook’s group feature to support asynchronous learning communities. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using Facebook groups for formal distance learning, as well as the success of two non-academic learning communities.
Advantages of Using Facebook Groups for Distance Learning
Some distance education institutions have already begun to experiment with using Facebook groups in various capacities, including using them to create student communities (Poellhuber & Anderson, 2011, p. 103) and as the online platform for distance learning. In a case study by Wang et al (as cited in Meishar-Tal et al, 2012), a Facebook group was used to host an online class. Wang et al found that student discussion in Facebook was significantly higher (400%) than in the control formal online classroom (p. 39).
Social media, particularly Facebook, is uniquely able to provide students with an insight into their community. Through using Facebook’s profile features, students can review and compare themselves with the backgrounds and circumstances of their classmates. Sharing common interests and goals can make students feel more comfortable with, and eager to participate in, their learning community (Poellhuber & Anderson, 2011, p. 105).
The Facebook group feature is designed to encourage participation. Content on the group’s “wall” is organized at first chronologically, and then may be moved to the top of the list (a more visible location) if members comment on or like it. This unique page organization encourages further discussion of topics that have proven popular with other members, thus seeking to stimulate and boost member participation in the group.
Other benefits of using Facebook include that it is relatively easy to use and widely available to the public. At this time, there is no cost for learners or administrators to use the group feature. Facebook also requires little to no maintenance on behalf of the distance education institution (Meishar-Tal et al, 2012, p. 36-39).
Challenges Regarding Facebook
Unfortunately, because Facebook was initially designed for networking as opposed to collaboration, the collaborative tools found in its group feature are rudimentary. Only a small space for user instructions is available, thus making it difficult to educate users on how to use the group’s page. In a study conducted by Meishar-Tal et al (2012), the number one struggle reported by students while using Facebook groups was “difficulty in locating old items and orientation problems (39%)” (p. 43). Additionally, Facebook groups do not offer any assessment or learner analytic tools, making collecting student participation data a challenge for instructors and distance education institutions (Meishar-Tal et al, 2012, p. 37).
Students, faculty, and institutions may also have privacy concerns regarding utilizing Facebook. Facebook requires users to have a Facebook account to participate in a Facebook group. Some students and faculty may already be using Facebook privately to connect with friends and family. Therefore, it is possible that institutions may receive some opposition from students and faculty who do not want to join Faceboook or “prefer a separation between learning space and social space” (Meishar-Tal et al, 2012, pp. 36-38). All content posted in Facebook is owned by Facebook, and it may share or archive data according to its policies (Meishar-Tal et al, 2012, p. 36). If an institution decides to implement a student community using Facebook, it may be advisable for them to periodically take snap shots or downloads to preserve the interaction for their own record keeping purposes.
Examples of Success Outside of Academia
The 100/100 Paddle Challenge and Back of the Pack Chattajack (BOP) are online stand up paddling communities that unite their members by directing them to complete a monumental challenge. In the 100/100 Paddle Challenge, members have committed themselves to paddling 100 miles in 100 consecutive days. BOP is an online community for ordinary paddlers to train and compete in a 31 mile race along the Chattanooga River called the Chattajack 31. As participants work towards completing their challenge, they post their progress on the Facebook wall of their group. Other group members will then enthusiastically respond to their posts with words of encouragement and congratulations.
This virtual cheerleading is effective in motivating participants in two ways. First, the comments confirm to participants that the group members are paying attention to their progress, thus giving them a feeling of accountability that the community wants them to finish their goal. Second, the comments give the participants positive reinforcement and a feeling of belonging to a larger paddling community. Both groups have enjoyed significant increases in membership and participation since their founding this year (Nicholls, 2014)(Hodges, 2014). The success of these groups suggests that there is potential for using Facebook groups to create community among learners in other distance education scenarios.
There is great potential for using Facebook groups to give distance learners a sense of community. Facebook’s features are built to encourage interaction. This continual interaction is critical for the survival of online communities (Butler et al, 2014, p 700). Instructors may also consider encouraging virtual cheerleading among students in Facebook groups as a way to further encourage student engagement and motivation.
Brindley, J. E. (1995). Learner services: Theory and practice, Distansutbildning i itveckling, Rapport nr. 11 (pp. 23-34). Umea, Sweden: University of Umea.
Butler, B. S., Bateman, P. J., Gray, P. H., & Diamant, E. (2014). An attraction-selection-attrition theory of online community size and resilience. MIS Quarterly, 38(3), 699-728. Retrieved from http://www.misq.org/
Hodges, D. (2014, March 6). Back of the Pack Chattajack [Facebook Group]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/groups/1404314579830164/
LaPadula, M. (2003). A comprehensive look at online student support services. American Journal of Distance Education, 17(2), 119-128. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/hajd20#.VDmOAvmzF1Y
Meishar-Tal, H., Kurtz, G., & Pieterse, E. (2012). Facebook groups as LMS: A case study. International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 13(4), 33-48. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=EJ1001705
Moore, R. (2014). Importance of developing community in distance education courses. Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice To Improve Learning, 58(2), 20-24. doi: 10.1007/s11528-014-0733-x
Nicholls, J. (2014, January 18). 100/100 Paddle Challenge [Facebook Group]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/groups/682074028482292/
Poellhuber, B., & Anderson, T. (2011). Distance students’ readiness for social media and collaboration. International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 12(6), 102-125. Retrieved through http://www.eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=EJ963934
Wang Q, Lit Woo H, Lang Quek C, Yang Y, Liu M. Using the Facebook group as a learning management system: An exploratory study. British Journal Of Educational Technology [serial online]. May 2012;43(3):428-438. Available from: Education Research Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 29, 2014. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01195.x